How Often Should You Give Food Rewards During Dog Training?

By Jeff Stallings

My dog Otis loves to spend time in the backyard, lounging in the sun or engaging in secretive but very important dog rituals, tossing pinecones around and gnawing on sticks.  But if I call to her from the side door using my I-mean-it cue, “Otis, HERE!”, 100% of the time she drops whatever has her attention and comes tearing around the corner and up the stairs.  How did I achieve that level of response with her recalls?


Read my latest article in Baywoof Magazine to find out!



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Dog Training Guarantees

By Jeff Stallings

I grew up cringing at those comically annoying radio spots by Tom Shane (my friend in the diamond business!), who guaranteed that I would not, could not, find a better diamond at a lower price.  Likewise, in ubiquitous Men’s Wearhouse spots, company president George Zimmer sought to convince men across the country that they were going to like the way they looked—“I guarantee it”.

I began pondering guarantees recently when in the course of a single day I received separate emails from two dog owners, both describing complex and deep-seated behavioral problems, asking what sort of guarantees I offered.  Here’s what I told them:  Dogs are animals, multifaceted beings whose rich emotional and mental lives are affected by as many variables as are humans, and that while we’ve developed scientifically-sound methods for canine behavior modification, the only guarantees in life are death and taxes—and ostensibly diamonds and men’s suits.

guaranteeThere’s an old joke in the dog training world that the only thing two trainers can agree upon is that the third one is doing it wrong.  Which I bring up mainly to refute.  In fact, far more than ever before, dog trainers and behaviorists have common, clinically-proven techniques to effect real change in dog behavior.  We benefit from a boom in canine behavioral studies over the past several decades, with cognitive development far more fully understood than ever.  (For purposes of this discussion, I am referring to behavior modification for problem behaviors, as opposed to general obedience, sport and trick training.)

Our toolkit includes positive reinforcement and clickers, desensitization and counterconditioning (DSCC), and more behavior modification acronyms (BAT, CAT and LAT, to name but a few) than you can shake a stick at.  The good new is that, with a targeted, science-based plan, canine behavior issues can be addressed, managed and mitigated, and frequently entirely solved.  The not-so-good news is that, well, there are no guarantees.  While we know much about how to effect change, each and every dog is a singular individual, with unique genes and experiences, including in utero environment, early socialization (or the lack thereof), the timing of weaning and at what stage a puppy is separated from the mother, and countless other factors that influence behavior.

In our modern world we exert far more control over daily existence than ever before in human history, and we sometimes, understandably, desire the same level of control over our animal companions.  We download apps at the touch of a button to order dinner to be delivered just so.  We control the temperature in our homes with the turn of a knob, and access the enormity of human knowledge with the flick of a finger.  Unfortunately, perhaps it’s also easier than ever to give up too soon on a dog that does not behave exactly as we wish, and maybe this is one reason shelters from coast to coast are bursting at the seams:  We want what we want, guarantees and all.

I certainly understand the inclination to want guaranteed results, but remedying behavior problems, be they canine or human, is rarely as straightforward as we’d like.  Let’s say you’d really like your teenager to study more and spend less time playing video games.  Would you send your son to the school counselor and demand that she modify his psyche to flip his most basic motivators?  Hopefully not!  But you could use positive reinforcement to influence his behavior by, for example, allowing him one hour of gaming for every hour spent studying, then perhaps offering him a car in exchange for a senior year of straight As—what we refer to in the dog training world as a “jackpot”.

One heartwrenching frustration I share with my dog training colleagues is that many behavior problems could be avoided, or at least minimized, by early puppy socialization.  Those scientific advances I spoke of earlier have established clearly delineated stages of cognitive development, information we can use to directly affect life-long behaviors.  I often hear distraught owners explain their rescue dog’s aggression (towards men, crying babies, skateboards, buses, other dogs) as “obviously” being the result of abuse, when it is far more likely the result of neglect, including a lack of early exposure to the things he now finds scary.

While formulating a potential behavior modification program, I often secretly, silently wish for a time machine to take the dog back to 8-weeks old, to fully expose him to all the things that fire up his reactivity (a word I generally prefer over aggression.)  If he had been repeated exposed to the objects of his reactivity during the “fear impact/second socialization” period of cognitive development (8 – 18 weeks), you’d likely have an entirely different set of behaviors, rooted less in fear and more in tolerance and confidence.  With a time machine to puppy socials past, I might follow in the footsteps of Tom Shane and the Men’s Wearhouse and offer guaranteed results.  I would of course still be bound by the myriad other factors that affect behavior.

While there are no time machines on the horizon, we do have a path forward in most cases of behavior problems. Thousands of dogs and their owners have benefited from modern behavior modification methods.  We now know how to slowly desensitize a dog with separation anxiety to being alone, for example, and how to countercondition fears to thunderstorms, children, men with hats and countless other reactivity triggers. Potty training is now more of a science than an art, and we know how to make basic obedience training—sit, down, stay, come—fun and exciting for canines and their human handlers alike.

I have observed extraordinary transformation in dog behavior employing these techniques.  And yet, and yet…  I have otherwise encountered dogs so impaired by nature and nurture as to appear beyond rehabilitation.  These heartbreaking cases might thrive in a particular environment, for example, a rural home or farm with few interactions with people or other dogs, but might never achieve harmony in an urban location.  Such is the case sometimes with dogs rescued from shelters.  The new owners quickly discover alarming behaviors, and these folks are often the ones desperate for guaranteed fixes.  Thankfully these discouraging cases are relatively rare.

The intent of this article is not to discourage, but rather to provide perspective.  Dog owners with realistic expectations, perseverance and commitment, armed with the latest knowledge (and perhaps an experienced trainer) have a very good chance indeed of improving their lot and their dog’s alike.

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Littermate Syndrome: The risky downside to raising sibling puppies

[Please note that an update of this article was published in the Winter 2014 issue of Bark Magazine.]

By Jeff Stallings, CPDT-KA

Upon reading Patricia Leslie’s email, I knew I’d be replying with disappointing news. “We were planning to adopt one puppy, but the breeder said that raising two sisters would be easier.” Leslie had contacted me after reading my blog post about littermate syndrome, in which profoundly bonded siblings have difficulty relating to humans and other dogs.

“After we brought the mixed-breed girls home at nine weeks, their behavior grew completely out of control. My husband and I could not get their attention for more than a second or two, as if we weren’t even in the same room. And then they started displaying alarming fearfulness of people and other dogs.” I made an appointment to meet Patricia, her husband Karl and the puppies the next day at their Richmond, California home.

Many dog behaviorists, trainers, breeders and shelters discourage adopting siblings. Anecdotal evidence suggests that behavioral issues may arise during key development periods because the two puppies’ deep bond impedes their ability to absorb and grasp the nuances of human and canine communication. Since fear is the default reaction to odd or unfamiliar stimuli in dogs, this muddled understanding of the world around them can lead to impaired coping mechanisms later on. Many factors influence behavior and not all siblings raised together will exhibit signs: Littermate syndrome is a risk, not a foregone conclusion.

Littermate Syndrome

Common Signs
Signs include fearfulness of unfamiliar people, dogs and other novel stimuli (neophobia); intense anxiety when separated even briefly; and difficulty learning basic obedience skills. In some cases the two dogs fight incessantly. Over lunch recently, veterinarian and dog behaviorist Dr. Ian Dunbar and I discussed raising sibling dogs. “It’s a disaster waiting to happen for the littermates because they don’t get socialized to other dogs or people, let alone to their owners,” he said. Many owners assume their interacting with each other is adequate, “but when the puppies are five or six months old and meet an unfamiliar dog in a novel setting, they absolutely freak out.”

Dunbar points out that raising littermates necessitates training two puppies—particularly challenging when they essentially wear blinders to all but each other. “It’s more than twice the work; it’s exponential. The two combine to produce levels of energy that we can barely measure. Tension develops in training and compliance as they squeeze the owner out of the relationship. They’re always living with an enormous distraction—each other.”

The Tie That Binds
Cohabitating siblings may become so emotionally dependent on each other that even short separations provoke extreme distress. Behavior specialist and author Nicole Wilde recalls a case in which two nine-year-old sibling Huskies attended her group class. “They were so bonded to each other that I literally could not take one and walk a few feet away to practice loose leash skills because the other would scream.”

Wilde believes the problems are rooted in hyper-attachment, leading to hindered social development and communication issues. “People assume that having two same-age pups that play together and interact constantly covers their dog-dog socialization needs, but they in fact don’t learn how other breeds play and have no idea about social skills with other puppies, adolescents or adult dogs. Perhaps one puppy is a bit of a bully, which his littermate puts up with, but his rude behavior might not be tolerated by a new dog in a new setting.”

During my appointment with Leslie, we determined that the best course was to re-home one of her twelve-week-old siblings. Dunbar agrees that it’s often best to separate littermates, especially if symptoms appear early, so that each has a chance to develop normally as an individual. This is obviously a burdensome decision for the overwhelmed owner to make, a sort of canine Sophie’s Choice, so he recommends that the new owner meet both puppies and determine which to take home.

Together Forever
Owners committed to raising a pair should ensure the puppies spend significant portions of every day apart so that each learns how to be alone—a key lesson in any well thought-out puppy program. This means feeding, walking and training separately, with individual crates in different parts of the home. Even trips to puppy socials and the vet should be separate so that both learn to incorporate these episodes into their psyches without being overly dependent on their littermate.

This separate-but-equal arrangement is time-consuming, exhausting and seems to defeat the original intent of acquiring siblings. Wilde notes that planned separations must begin immediately. “I’ve been called into homes where four-month-old siblings have been sleeping in the same crate for eight weeks and not purposefully separated by the owners, who had the best intentions but were unaware of littermate issues. Even getting the puppies to sleep in separate crates right next to each other is traumatic for them.”

Dunbar, too, is adamant that a key lesson for a puppy to master is how to be content with being alone, all but impossible with two siblings. “Once we’ve done that, yes, he can live with other dogs and have free run of the house. But if you don’t teach puppies early on how to be alone, and especially with siblings who have always been together, it will be catastrophic when one dies.” Dunbar encourages multiple dog households—“I always like having three dogs”—but the timing, temperament and age that each enters the home is paramount.

Most people contacting me through my blog never heard of littermate syndrome before finding the post while researching symptoms observed in their dogs. Increasingly, trainers and behavior professionals recognize that the cons of adopting siblings far outweigh the pros. “The only advantage I can think of is a short-term gain of the puppies being less lonely in the first month of life”, says Dunbar. “Everything else is a loss.”

Exceptions and Hope
While the majority of comments to my blog corroborate struggles in raising siblings—including the ongoing aggression and fighting often seen between same-gendered littermates—others write of well-adjusted cohabitating pairs. A common thread seems to be that littermates are more likely to thrive when introduced into a household with an older dog, who perhaps acts as an arbiter and stabilizing influence.

Myriad factors affect dog behavior, including genetics, early life experiences and owner engagement. As University of California/Davis veterinary behaviorist Dr. Melissa Bain points out, “two fearful littermates very well may be genetically predisposed to fear.” Bain is less inclined to apply the term syndrome to the set of symptoms: “It makes you think all littermates have problems, which is not the case.” She also emphasizes that the level of owner involvement is key, saying “the symptoms escalate when the owners treat them as one dog with eight legs.” When conflict ensues within the pair, Bain believes it’s due to the dogs being too similar in size, age and gender. “This uniformity makes it difficult for the siblings to delineate a hierarchy,” she said.

After Leslie’s second sibling had been re-homed, her remaining puppy began to thrive under a remedial socialization program. “Dora has blossomed in the last three months into a delightful household companion and she continues to improve. She now approaches people out of curiosity. We know she would still be fearful had we not separated the two before it got any worse. Dora has become more confident with all kinds of dogs and successfully completed a group obedience class.”

Increased Awareness
Recognition of the risks appears to be spreading, with many breeders and shelters declining to place siblings together. Shelley Smith, adoption center manager at Pets Unlimited in San Francisco, said her shelter stopped placing siblings together after a particularly disturbing case. “A dachshund mix named Thelma was returned to the shelter because her sibling repeatedly attacked her and she had multiple injuries by the time the heartbroken family returned her to us. Thankfully we were able to re-home Thelma, but it’s almost certain the fighting and anxiety could have been avoided had the two littermates not been placed together. We now separate siblings and inform adopters about the rationale for our policy.”

While siblings blessed with extraordinary genes and socialization-forward owners may deflect littermate syndrome, the consensus among canine professionals is that it’s not worth the risk. Most would encourage new owners to adopt a single puppy that suits their lifestyle and to focus on the training and socialization that strengthens the interspecies bond unique to humans and dogs. Once your puppy is a dog, by all means, get a second since the two will be at completely different stages, and the older one may very well emerge as a great life teacher to the younger.

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My article in the July issue of Bay Woof: Your Dog Needs a Job

Most evenings as we settle down to read or watch TV, Jim or I give Otis something to chew. She has many favorites from what I call the “carnage aisle” of the pet store, such as beef kneecaps, bully sticks, and marrowbones.

But before Otis gets hever r nightly chew treat, I always have her perform one or two of her many tricks, such as rolling oor weaving figure 8s between my legs. I then have her sit/stay while I hide the chew treat and release her to sniff it out. Otis finds all of this oh so fun and engaging. She then lies happily at my feet, gnawing away at the item of the evening.

Click here to continue reading on the Bay Woof website.

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Nature vs. Nurture: Dog breeds, temperament and training

By Jeff Stallings

Recently, an exasperated dog owner contacted me about her out-of-control, “aggressive” Labrador retriever. She was trying to understand why her 2-year-old dog actively challenges other dogs, men and children with growls, snaps and threatening postures. During our phone conversation she reminded me several times that “everyone knows” Labs are sweet and gentle creatures that love all people and all dogs (just like her last one did.)

On the contrary, it is impossible to generalize about canine temperament based on breed alone. Researchers Kenth Svartberg (Stockholm University) and Björn Forkman (University of Denmark) analyzed a huge dataset that included over 15,000 dogs from 164 breeds in an attempt to better understand dog personality. Using a series of behavior tests, the researchers categorized each individual dog in regards to:

  • Playfulness
  • Curiosity/fearlessness
  • Chase proneness
  • Shyness/boldness
  • Sociability (Does the dog get along with other dogs?)
  • Calmness (Is the dog coolheaded under stressful situations?)
  • Trainability (Does the dog learn quickly?)
  • Aggressiveness

The researchers demonstrated conclusively that there is a very high degree of behavior variation within each dog breed. There are many facets in addition to genes that go into constructing the temperament of any given dog, including maternal nutrition during gestation, the birth process, interaction with siblings (or a lack of siblings), and events early in life. The problem with my caller’s assertion about the ever-gentle Lab is that not all Labs are the same any more than all people are the same.

angry_labThis is not to say that behavior cannot be inherited. On the contrary, certain characteristics of the dog’s wolf ancestors have been intentionally amplified in certain working breeds, such as circling prey (herding) in Border Collies and endlessly chasing vermin (ratting) in Yorkshire terriers. But, as researchers John Paul Scott and John Fuller—who in the 1940s performed a smaller-scale study similar to the one mentioned above—noted, “After emphasizing the differences between the breeds, we wish to caution the reader against accepting the idea of a breed stereotype.

Early intentional breeding by humans focused on function—hunting or ratting, for example—rather than the visible ascetics that are the focus of today’s breed standards (often to deleterious effect.) Dogs are not machines but rather animals with all the variability and chance inherent in, well, heredity.

So while we can’t backpedal the “nature” aspect of any given puppy, we can have a profound impact on future behavior by making sure we get the “nurture” part right. Anyone who has kept up with my blog posts in recent years knows that I am a huge advocate of comprehensive socialization during puppyhood, commencing immediately upon administering the first set of shots and intensively continuing through six months of age. This includes meeting 100 people before 12 weeks; numerous puppy socials between 10 and 20 weeks; and safely exposing him to as many types of animals, people, machines, buses, etc. as possible (without causing over-stimulation manifested as excessive fear, withdrawal or avoidance behavior.)

Is a dog that is well-socialized and trained never going to perform actions that to us look aggressive? Unfortunately, no. Even having been as diligent as possible in socializing your puppy—and irrespective of breed—your dog may still have temperament issues that result in less-than-desirable behavior, including fearfulness and reactivity. But even these issues must be considered in regards to (1) normal canine communication and (2) the effects of on-going training and management. To elaborate:

Normal canine communication often appears to humans to be “aggressive” when in fact the apparent ferocity may simply be a dog clearly making her point, like a human couple having a heated argument. My mutt Otis, for instance, is by no means naturally aggressive. In fact, as a young puppy she was quite timid and submissive. But if we’re playing on the beach and another dog tries to take her ball, she will growl and bark and chase them away. Someone who does not understand dog language might say that Otis is being “aggressive”. I would counter that she is clearly telling the other dog to leave her resource (the ball) alone. If the dog has been well-socialized, he will understand her point, leave the ball and mind his business; if not, he might misunderstand her communication, persist in his rudeness and escalate the encounter. These sorts of misunderstandings are the type that can usually (but not always!) be avoided by early socialization to other puppies, when the nuances of dog “language” are practiced and mastered.

As for effects of on-going training and management, many behavior issues can be improved with training that is consistent and fair. If your dog is leash-reactive towards other dogs, there are steps that can be taken to mitigate this issue. The same goes for separation distress, leash pulling and the like. But if, for instance, your dog never met a child until he was a year old and shows fearful aggression toward the first one he meets, you will probably never be able fully relax around small children.

So, a pit bull can be the goofiest, sweetest dog you ever met, and a Golden Retriever might be the proverbial wolf in sheep’s clothing.  My job as a trainer is to guide people through behavior modification programs when they have a good chance of success. But I also look to provide context and tools for management when training alone cannot ensure the safety of all affiliated people and dogs. Regardless, whether through responsible breeding, socialization, training or management, the goal is a happy, healthy dog who understands how to best get along with humans and other beasts in this man-made world we share.

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Treat/Retreat: a strategy for introducing your reactive dog to houseguests

By Jeff Stallings

Folks sometimes hire me to help with dogs who feel threatened or frightened by strangers entering their homes. These dogs bark, growl, snap or otherwise display signs of fear-based aggression on encountering new people. Owners sometimes attempt to have guests hand the dog a treat, but find that this earnest attempt at establishing a human/canine friendship backfires. Why is that, and what’s a better alternative?

Dogs are emotion-driven animals with a highly developed aptitude for complex communication with humans and with other dogs. Because they are a social species that live in groups, this communication helps to maintain peace and defuse volatile situations. Over millennia, the dog’s capacity to read and react to humans has evolved well beyond the abilities of any other species on earth.

However, this capacity must be fully exercised in early puppyhood for dogs to feel entirely comfortable in our presence. Puppies who are intensively socialized will almost always learn the ins and outs of communication. But puppies who do not spend lots of quality time early on with a variety of humans can sometimes become fearful later on.

Dogs use gestures to clearly communicate when they are feeling threatened or stressed—ones they sometimes employ when strangers enter your home. If your dog barks, growls, snaps or otherwise shows stress via raised hackles, a lowered head, flattened ears or a slow tail wag, the last thing you want to do is further stress him by having your friend directly offer food. The problem with this strategy is that it forces an already-stressed animal to go outside his “safety zone” to retrieve the treat, increasing his internal conflict rather than decreasing his stress about the presence of this new person.


This dog is showing many stress signals, including hugely dilated pupils, whites of the eyes (whale eye), crouched posture, flattened ears, and closed mouth.

An alternative I often employ was developed either by veterinarian Dr. Ian Dunbar or renowned dog trainer Suzanne Clothier, both of whom employ the technique (but both of whom attribute its discovery to the other.) Regardless, the method relies on clearly communicating to a stressed, potentially reactive dog that he is free to NOT move closer to or meet the new guest. And I have seen it succeed spectacularly as part of a comprehensive strategy for in-home introductions. Here’s how it works:

Ideally, have the person and dog meet outside of your home, on a short walk, and have them toss the dog some treats, with no eye contact or other gestures.  When the new person enters your home (let’s call him “Bob”), have him squat or kneed sideways to the dog, ignore your dog entirely; direct eye contact is threatening to dogs. With no fanfare, have Bob toss a small treat PAST your dog (“Sybil”) so that she has to retreat to eat it. Repeat five to eight times, making sure that Bob’s body movements tossing the treat are subtle and non-threatening. You can verbally and in real-time coach your friend through this casual performance.

Once Sybil is getting into the swing of the game, have Bob toss an even better treat between he and the dog, so that she has to move forward to retrieve it, followed by another (just okay) treat tossed past Sybil. Over time, drop the better treats closer to Bob (still no direct eye contact!) until either Sybil approaches directly, or she makes it clear where her comfort zone ends. If the dog finally approaches your guest, he can stroke under her chin or on her chest, still with soft movements, quiet voice and little eye contact. If your dog does not willingly approach, end the game and have your guest leave.

This treat/retreat game is typically part of a guest-in-home protocol that might also include meeting outside on a walk; crating the dog until she calms down; and other strategies. I recommend that you work with a professional dog trainer who can help you customize a protocol for your specific situation and guide you through this process the first time.

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Clicker Training: Better, Faster, More

By Jeff Stallings

My favorite dog training story of recent vintage concerns three shelter dogs being taught to drive a car.  That’s right, the New Zealand SPCA undertook canine drivers ed to demonstrate that rescue dogs are smart, trainable and indubitably adoptable.  Heck, if a dog can learn to drive a car, any trick is possible, including fetching the paper, sitting quietly when guests arrive, and doing your taxes.  (Okay, maybe not your taxes.)

Dog driving car

Dogs learning to drive in New Zealand

(Unfortunately , the video of these dogs has been taken down after three years. See the video at the end of this article of a gun dog being taught to retrieve; the kikopup YouTube channel has tons of videos for clicker training a wide range of commands.)

Pioneered in the 1960’s by marine mammal trainers, clicker training solved the problem of how to clearly communicate desired behaviors from a distance. For obvious reasons it’s challenging to reward a dolphin when he’s in the water and the trainer is not. Animal behaviorists Keller and Marian Breland solved this problem over 50 years ago by designing an auditory marker, in this case a whistle, which would signal precisely the instant a dolphin hit her mark.

In 1984 behavioral biologist Karen Pryor published “Don’t Shoot the Dog”, a book that has since revolutionized the dog training world, in which she extrapolated the work with marine mammals to apply to virtually any animal.  Pryor was an early adopter of reward-based positive reinforcement, with clicker training an integral element. Today most animal trainers are using marker training because it teaches new behaviors about 50% faster than older methods.  Pretty much any animal actor you’ve seen in recent years has been (quickly) clicker trained for their starring roles, including the pigs and sheep in the film “Babe” and, more recently, Uggie the Jack Russell Terrier, who stole his every scene in “The Artist”.


Canine superstar Uggie in “The Artist”

Why Clicker Training Works
Dogs (and dolphins) live in the here and now and unlike humans do not dwell in the past or future.  For a dog to mentally link an action with a reward, the reward must be delivered within one-half second of the behavior you want him to learn and repeat.  Given a food reward five seconds late, in the dog’s mind there is no longer a connection between the action and the reward; he’s simply getting some food.

At the start of clicker training we “marry” a distinct sound to a food reward, allowing us to thereafter mark/reward a behavior in real-time, well within that half-second period.  The click comes to mean two things to the dog:  (1) “what I was just doing when I heard the click is something I should do more of because” (2) “a treat reliably follows.

The Starting Point:  Conditioning Exercises
The initial “conditioning” exercises—which pairs the clicking sound with a food reward—takes about four days, with several two-to-three minutes sessions per day.  Using a small inexpensive ($3) plastic and metal noisemaker, all you do is click the instant your dog receives a tiny morsel of valuable food.  That’s it.  During each short conditioning exercise, the click/treat is repeated 15-20 times in quick succession.

Now you’re ready to pinpoint behaviors in a way that your dog clearly understands.  From here on out there is a lag between the click—marking the desired behavior—and the treat.  Every single click is always followed by a treat, even if it takes a few seconds to deliver.  In fact, the period between the click and the treat is a highly enjoyable time for your dog.  Like a kid before Christmas, anticipation is half the fun!  Think of the sequence as click-then-treat.

Nothing Lasts Forever
Folks are sometimes wary of clicker training at first.  Who wants to carry a clicker around forever?   Ah, but you don’t have to carry it around at all, let alone forever:  the clicker is used only during short (5 minute) training sessions to teach brand new behaviors.  Once your dog is reliably performing an action on cue—a visual signal and/or a verbal command—the clicker is taken out of the picture, and then food rewards are faded.

For simple behaviors, you might just use the clicker for a day or two.  To teach more a complex (and highly useful) “chain” of behaviors, such as having your dog retrieve a beer from the refrigerator, the clicker is used to mark each step in the sequence.  Either way, by marking precisely the desired action in real time, your dog will learn twice as fast.  And once a step becomes second nature—he opens the refrigerator door just because it’s fun and pleases you—the clicker is retired.

One further point on the use of clickers:  I encourage my clients to give it a try.  If it feels like too much to juggle, they’re free to use food rewards alone. You can pick it back up anytime, say, when your puppy is a dog and you’re ready to teach tricks.  Dogs with clicker training under their, um, collars will remember and immediately respond.

Many Mini Steps on the Way to Perfection
In clicker training we often mark a behavior in a short form to develop one far more complex. Early actions are mini versions of larger behaviors, the clicker used as a scalpel to hone and refine.  For instance, a dog lifting a paw to touch a cone is the beginning of a wave; a dog sinking its shoulders to lie down is the beginning of a bow; a paw touching an object is the opening to push, roll, flick, pick up, or rotate that object.

Referring back to the dog driving video, about 3 minutes in you’ll see the trainers “shaping” the behavior that will eventually become the dog putting the real car in gear.  A mock-up of the gearshift is set on the floor.  At first the dog is clicked for simply touching the ball at the end of a stick.  But over the course of multiple training sessions they up the ante, only clicking/treating when his paw stays on top of the ball/gearshift.  (The dog also gains a great deal of information from not hearing a click.)

You can find instructions and videos on the web for using clicker training to teach pretty much anything you can think of.  But the sky truly is the limit:  Anything your dog can (safely) physically accomplish can be taught via tiny increments, progress distinctly marked with the clicker, the ante upped until the end result is achieved.

Finally, the following is a video of Donna Hill clicker training to perfection a bird dog retrieving to hand.  This is significant because old-school training of gun dogs was particularly brutal.  This shows expert use of the clicker as a tool to shape a complex behavior, one gentle step at a time.

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Otis and I do the weave at Ocean Beach

I encourage my dog training clients to continue to teach their dogs new cues and tricks because it strengthens the bonds between human and dog. Plus, dogs really like having to think and “work”. This is one that anyone can teach their dog in a day or two, especially using clicker (marker) training. Otis loves doing the weave, as you can see, in slow motion no less!

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Poor, poor Pepe: Old-school housebreaking and why it often backfired

By Jeff Stallings

This post starts with a sad tale from my childhood in the suburbs of Atlanta with my family adopting a miniature poodle puppy we called Pepe, and ends with Pepe on the lam and ending up who-knows-where.  I was about 7 years old when Pepe came into our lives for what turned out to be a very short time.

Now, I don’t want to trash talk my parents because this was the 1960s and dog training was perhaps at its nadir.  (Plus my mom reads my blog so let me just say “Hey Mom! You’re of the hook!”)  Suffice it to say that, in retrospect, we did pretty much everything wrong even while following dog training standards of the day.


This is what I remember about how we “housebroke” Pepe:  When my mother or father would walk into the room to find a big pile of Pepe poo or a puddle of Pepe pee, there was hell to pay for that poor little dog.  Pepe would be grabbed by the scruff, his snout held into the offending substance, a rolled-up newspaper simultaneously swatting his butt as the punisher repeated a loud and scary “NO!”.

Poor Pepe indeed!  The intent was for him to somehow understand that eliminating in the house was not permitted.  What he learned instead was that every once in a while those two-legged beasts would grab him, shove his face into the dirty floor and yell at him in a very scary way.  Who can blame the poor guy from running away at the first opportunity?

There is so much wrong with this picture.  Let’s start with the term “housebreak”.  The “break” refers to breaking in the sense of breaking a horse, harkening back to old-school aversive methods for training horses.  So instead of speaking in terms of training, back then we spoke in terms of breaking, of tearing something down, presumably to build something else in its place.

Beyond that (and why such techniques so often failed) we assumed that the little puppy would somehow make a connection between the offending substance (feces, urine) and the punishment at hand.  What we now know is that you have to punish—or reward—a dog within one-half second of the behavior you are addressing for him to make the connection.  Whether 5 seconds or 5 minutes or 5 hours had passed between Pepe’s poop and the scolding was irrelevant.  Since the “correction” did not happen at the very instant of his eliminating, Pepe had no way to make the connection.  This tactic was not only woefully slow at teaching puppies where to eliminate, it was also a sure-fire tactic to create a fearful dog.  All wrong!

Sadly, I have had potential clients contact me exasperated because they’re attempting to “housebreak” their puppy with the nose-rubbed-in-poop method and cannot understand why he or she is not “getting it”.  First, I tell them to think in terms of potty training instead of housebreaking.  This is to say, reward your puppy for doing his business where you want him to (the backyard, the front sidewalk) and minimize the chances of him going where he should not—your living room floor, for instance.  How do you do that?

    • Giving your new puppy free range to the whole house is asking for all sorts of problems, from soiled carpets to torn furniture.  A puppy must be restricted to areas in which, should nature call, it’s okay.  The best set-up is a small crate—a comfy, den-like space only large enough for him to turn around in—inside of a small room or elongated playpen.  If you cannot watch your puppy continuously, he should be in this pen, water and crate on one end, newspapers or pee-pads on the other.  Dogs will always eliminate as far as possible from where they eat and sleep.
    • When you are at home and in a position to watch your puppy close enough to anticipate that he is about to “go”, take him to his outdoor spot and as he is going, say “Go potty!  Go potty!”, or whatever cue you want to eventually become the command for your dog to do his business pronto.  Keep a supply of treats close at hand, perhaps in a bowl by your exit, and the very instant (that one-half second rule applies here) he finishes, reward with a treat, a pat on the head and a happy “good puppy!”
    •  You must take your puppy outside to his “spot” many, many, MANY, times per day.  Tiny little digestive systems mean frequent calls of nature.  This includes waking your puppy in the middle of the night and taking him to the spot.  I think of this as a freebee because he or she will always go right after waking up, and will typically go right back to sleep if it’s dark out.
    •  Which brings up another point:  Puppies will usually eliminate immediately after a play session, after waking up, and right after a meal.  So get your rhythms in tune with your puppy’s rhythms.  Oh, and take the water bowl up by 6pm and be sure to take him out right before putting him in the crate for the night.
    •  If you slack up and catch your pup pooping or peeing outside of his pen, with no emotion on your part and without saying a word, CLAP your hands loudly once, scoop him up and take him to his “spot”.  If he finishes up, reward as usual.  Then roll up a wad of newspaper and use it to swat yourself on the butt:  This was entirely your fault.

Over time your pup will come to understand that eliminating outside brings manna from heaven and going inside does not.  As this concept becomes more ingrained in the little guy, you’ll be in a position to finally get rid of the play pen and start opening access to your house, one room at a time.  Rule of thumb:  Your dog is fully potty trained once he has not made a “mistake” in the house for a month.  How long this takes depends on your diligence and the nature of your dog.  In my experience toy breeds take longer, sometimes well over a year.  That said, my dog Otis was completely potty trained by eight months.  Mileage may vary.

Had we known all of this back in 1967, Pepe may well have become a cherished memory instead of the source of soul-searching and guilt.  But at least today’s puppies and their people have a leg up, so to speak, on their predecessors.  Behavior science has revealed how dogs develop and learn, and we can use this knowledge to make all of our lives—human and canine alike—a little more pleasant.

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Don’t leave me this way: A primer on canine separation anxiety

By Jeff Stallings

More than half of my clients bring dogs into their lives from shelters or other situations in which the dog’s history is unclear.  And a fairly large percentage of those have some sort of behavioral issue, such as fear-based aggression, barrier frustration (on leash or behind doors or gates) or, the subject of today’s post, separation anxiety.


Like humans, dogs are a social species. It is in part due to the human and dog social structures being so similar that the extraordinary relationship between our species came to exist at all.  Dogs want and need to be with humans, which is great—until it’s not.  When a dog becomes unduly upset when left alone, we call this “separation anxiety”.

However, just because after you leave for work your dog tears up furniture, soils the carpet, or barks all day, it does not automatically mean he’s suffering from separation anxiety; he could just be bored out of his mind or under-exercised.  You can never leave your dog alone for hours on end having not fully exercised his body and mind without expecting pushback.

With true separation anxiety the symptoms occur each and every time the dog is left alone; destruction occurs at exit points, typically where people leave the house; and continues unabated until they return.  There are many factors to consider in determining whether your dog has full-on separation anxiety or is just bored or otherwise improperly managed.

There are two flavors of this behavior.  The most common is “isolation distress” whereby the dog simply cannot bear to be alone.  The second type is “separation distress” in which the dog cannot bear to part with a particular individual even when left with other dogs or humans.  But since the symptoms and potential treatments are similar, we tend to lump these under the catchall diagnosis of “separation anxiety”.

So that’s what it is…now what do we do about it?  It is important to understand that there are no magic bullets but that in almost every case you can work towards resolution. The key word there is “work”:  It takes time, commitment, creativity, and the patience of a saint.  Alleviating separation issues requires a combination of desensitization exercises—such as breaking your departure routine into tiny pieces and getting the dog comfortable with each, incrementally increasing the amount of time you’re gone; and management—finding ways for your dog to not be alone as you work on desensitization.

Other components of the program might include increasing exercise levels, expansion of obedience training, pressure wraps (such as the Thundershirt), and in some cases, medication. I have seen clients recoil at the very mention of medication, but sometimes it is the salve that allows all the other work to take hold.  Any such medication should never be used unless combined with a comprehensive behavior modification program.  Medications alone will never fix the problem.

If you believe your dog has separation issues, consider hiring a professional dog trainer to help diagnose the true nature of your dog’s symptoms and to establish a program to address the problem.  I also recommend an excellent book on the subject by Nichole Wilde called “Don’t Leave Me:  Step-by Step Help for Your Dog’s Separation Anxiety”.

Have faith in your dog and yourself.  The situation is far from hopeless!

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